1. Implicit Bias: Students of color are often subject to implicit bias from educators and school staff, which can lead to harsher disciplinary actions. For example, a study by the National Center for Education Statistics found that Black students were more likely to be suspended for subjective reasons such as disrespect, while white students were more likely to be suspended for objective reasons such as smoking (NCES, 2018).
  2. Zero Tolerance Policies: Zero tolerance policies, which mandate automatic suspension or expulsion for certain behaviors, have been shown to disproportionately affect students of color. For example, a study by the University of California, Los Angeles found that Black and Latino students were more likely to be suspended for minor infractions such as dress code violations or disobedience (UCLA, 2015).
  3. Lack of Support: Students of color may face additional challenges such as poverty, language barriers, and limited access to resources and support services. Without adequate support, these students may be more likely to engage in behaviors that result in suspension. For example, a study by the Southern Education Foundation found that students from low-income families were more likely to be suspended than their peers (SEF, 2015).
  4. Disproportionate Discipline: Students of color may be disciplined more severely than their white peers for similar behaviors. For example, a study by the American Psychological Association found that Black students were more likely to be suspended or expelled for minor infractions such as classroom disruption or tardiness (APA, 2012).

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